Active stubble management to enhance residue breakdown and subsequent crop management

2016

Research organisaton
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Nick Poole, Tracey Wylie and Michael Straight (FAR Australia)
Year(s) 2016
Contributor Riverine Plains
Trial location(s) Site 2, Corowa, NSW
Henty, NSW
Site 2, Dookie, VIC
Site 1, Yarrawonga, VIC
Active stubble management to enhance residue breakdown and subsequent crop management locations
Aims

The project seeks to:

  • investigate, demonstrate and extend cultural practices that will assist growers to adopt no-till stubble retention (NTSR) in medium and higher-rainfall environments;
  • build on findings from the previous Riverine Plains Inc. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) project; and
  • extend the frontier of agronomic knowledge for crops grown in NTSR systems.
Key messages

• There were significant increases in dry matter (DM) accumulation, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop canopy greenness where barley was established following cultivation with one pass of the multidisc, which was most evident where additional nitrogen was added at sowing.
• Although there was a trend for cultivated stubble with additional sowing nitrogen to yield more than burning, there were no significant yield differences in the trial.
• Growing a faba bean crop instead of a second wheat crop increased the yield of the following wheat by 0.34–0.47t/ha in 2016 compared with a 2t/ha advantage in the following wheat crop in 2015.
• Adequate nitrogen availability in the third wheat crop, combined with higher yield potential, and poor nodulation in the faba beans, appears to be partly the reason for the smaller yield benefit in 2016.
• Across three years of field trials, none of the different stubble management treatments have been superior to the no-till stubble retention (NTSR) control, despite differences in DM production.

Lead research organisation Riverine Plains
Host research organisation Riverine Plains
Trial funding source GRDC RPI00009
Related program Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble
Acknowledgments

Thanks to the farmer co-operators at each of these sites:
• Corowa/Coreen: Tomlinson Ag
• Yarrawonga: Telewonga Pty Ltd
• Dookie: Ludeman Brothers
• Henty: Peter Campbell
This work was carried out as part of the Riverine Plains
Inc GRDC funded project Maintaining Profitable Farming
Systems with Retained Stubble in the Riverine Plains
Region (2013–18).


Other trial partners FAR Australia
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop types Barley
Canola
Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Crop: Rotation
  • Stubble: Management
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Blocked

Corowa 2016 Barley

Sowing machinery Not specified
Sow date 4 May 2016
Harvest date 9 December 2016
Plot size 40m x 15m
Plot replication 4
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Other trial notes Not specified

Henty 2016 Canola

Sowing machinery

John Deere 1590 Disc seeder

Sow date 10 April 2016
Harvest date 6 December 2016
Plot size 40m x 15m
Plot replication 4
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Other trial notes Not specified

Dookie 2016 Wheat

Sowing machinery

Simplicity seeder/knife point

Sow date 12 May 2016
Harvest date 13 December 2016
Plot size 40m x 18m
Plot replication 4
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Other trial notes Not specified

Yarrawonga 2016 Wheat

Sowing machinery

Aus seeder DBS tine knife point

Sow date 28 April 2016
Harvest date 12 December 2016
Plot size 40m x 18m
Plot replication 4
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Other trial notes

GSR (Apr-Oct)

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Crop growth parameters at Corowa 2017

@T1: GS31 @T2: GS39 @T3: GS69 @T4: GS95-99
# Treatment 1
Hectolitre weight (kg/hL) Screenings (%) 1000 grain weight (g) Establishment plants (plants/m2) Head abundance (heads/m2) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 NTSR 63.9 4.2 38 97 406 483 9.5 5.24 1.17 55 2.97 64 7.3 102 51 9.37
1 Cultivated (one pass) 59.8 4.3 35.4 108 429 568 8.5 4.82 1.49 69 3.4 64 8.92 132 51 9.27
1 Cultivated (one pass) + 40 kg N/ha 61.9 4.6 37.9 107 440 497 9.7 5.54 1.56 62 3.37 85 8.44 122 58 9.22
1 Burnt 63.7 4.5 37 103 387 406 9.5 4.81 1.06 42 2.89 77 8.42 118 46 8.41
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Grain yield t/ha


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Head abundance heads/m2


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Trial results Wheat crop growth parameters at Yarrawonga 2017

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4:
# Head abundance (heads/m2) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Establishment plants (plants/m2) Harvest index (value) Hectolitre weight (kg/hL) Screenings (%) 1000 grain weight (g) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 NTSR - long stubble 266 248 8.5 5.86 151 50.3 79.9 2.9 46.6 1.57 49 5.13 72 79 8.82 93 11.83
1 NTSR - long stubble + 40kg N/ha 225 271 9.7 6.19 153 57.1 80.1 2.5 47.3 1.53 51 5.74 75 87 9.65 95 10.85
1 NTSR - Short stubble 304 334 8.9 5.81 140 49.3 79.9 2.1 48.7 1.91 54 5.45 63 72 10.57 98 11.89
1 Straw Removed 300 371 8.6 5.6 159 48.3 79.8 2.5 49 2.1 55 6.72 84 105 10.55 105 11.68
1 Cultivate - one pass 304 335 9.1 5.9 146 49.7 80.4 2.2 49.3 2.02 61 5.63 66 105 11.1 124 11.94
2 Cultivate - one pass + 40 kgN/ha 327 354 10 6.69 152 52 80.4 2.5 49.9 2.12 65 6.49 86 101 12.31 122 12.93
2 Burnt 325 373 8.9 6.12 158 42.8 80.3 2.2 50 2.13 60 6.69 71 108 12.22 100 14.41
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Dry matter t/ha


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Establishment plants plants/m2


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Harvest index value


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Head abundance heads/m2


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Hectolitre weight kg/hL


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Trial results Crop growth parameters at Dookie 2017

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4:
# Hectolitre weight (kg/hL) Screenings (%) 1000 grain weight (g) Establishment plants (plants/m2) Head abundance (heads/m2) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 NTSR - long stubble 76.5 0.7 53.9 135 356 296 10.7 5.8 0.76 32 6.6 139 10.3 116 71 14.1
1 NTSR - Short stubble 79.4 0.6 54.4 133 383 389 10.7 5.37 1.12 49 7.3 138 11.2 142 80 14
1 Culitvated (one pass) 79.4 0.7 53.2 136 391 363 11.3 5.6 1.04 45 6.6 116 11.1 106 73 12.5
1 Straw Removed 80.5 0.7 52.5 141 343 378 10.5 6 1.1 52 6.6 124 10.5 124 52 12.9
1 Burnt 79.7 0.6 52.8 152 378 445 11.1 6.23 1.17 50 7.1 149 11.5 112 79 12.6
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Establishment plants plants/m2


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Head abundance heads/m2


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Hectolitre weight kg/hL


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Trial results Crop growth parameters at Henty 2016

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4:
# Weeds (plants/m2) Establishment plants (plants/m2) Grain yield (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha)
1 NTSR (Control) 0.4 31 2.4 1.64 86 3.7 117 6.9 141 9.76 151
1 NTSR + 40 kg N/ha 0.6 35 2.26 2.15 112 4.51 130 6.09 114 7.98 153
1 Mulched 0.4 31 2.48 1.69 96 3.91 94 7.58 161 8.31 91
1 Mulched + 40kg N/ha 0.4 25 2.53 1.58 82 4.19 167 9.11 227 9.59 130
1 Cultivate (one pass) 0 34 2.8 1.84 111 5.17 132 6.64 132 8.33 98
2 Cultivate (one pass) + 40kg/ha 1 28 2.72 1.75 94 5.12 201 7.49 164 8.87 165
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Grain yield t/ha


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Dry matter t/ha


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Weeds plants/m2


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Site 2, Corowa, NSW Red brown earth
Henty, NSW none
Site 2, Dookie, VIC Red loam over medium clay
Site 1, Yarrawonga, VIC Loam over clay
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source
Trial site Soil order
Site 2, Corowa, NSW Sodosol
Henty, NSW Sodosol
Site 2, Dookie, VIC Sodosol
Site 1, Yarrawonga, VIC Sodosol
National soil grid Source
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Site 2, Corowa NSW 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 567mm

Henty NSW 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 619mm

Site 2, Dookie VIC 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 509mm

Site 1, Yarrawonga VIC 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 604mm

Derived climate information

Site 2, Corowa VIC

Henty VIC

Site 2, Dookie VIC

Site 1, Yarrawonga VIC

Site 2, Corowa VIC

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Henty VIC

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Site 2, Dookie VIC

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Site 1, Yarrawonga VIC

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate
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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 28-11-2019 10:34am AEST