Impact of retaining stubble in low rainfall farming systems

2017
CC BY 4.0

Research organisatons
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Amanda Cook (SARDI)
Ian Richter (SARDI)
Year(s) 2017
Contributor Eyre Peninsula Agricultural Research Foundation
Trial location(s) Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA
Related trials
Impact of retaining stubble in low rainfall farming systems locations
Aims

The GRDC project ‘Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble - upper Eyre Peninsula’ aims to produce sustainable management guidelines to control pests, weeds and diseases while retaining stubble to maintain or improve soil health, and reduce exposure to wind erosion. The major outcome to be achieved is increased knowledge and skills allowing farmers and advisers to improve farm profitability while retaining stubble in farming systems on upper Eyre Peninsula (EP).

The Minnipa Agricultural Centre (MAC) S7 stubble retention trial was established to maintain or improve crop production through applying alternative weed, disease and pest control options in pasture wheat rotations in the presence of crop residues. The trial was established in 2013 with wheat and different stubble treatments imposed at harvest annually. It was sown either inter row or on row in 2014-17 to determine the impacts of stubble management on crop production, weeds, disease and pests in low rainfall farming systems.

Key messages

Standing stubble cut low (15-17 cm) resulted in the highest level of stubble being maintained into the following season.

Stubble management and seeding position had little effect on grass weeds.

Snail numbers were higher in standing stubble cut high (30 cm) and stubble removed had the lowest numbers.

Stubbles can be estimated using 1.3-2.8 times the grain yield, but it may underestimate the stubble in an average season following a good year, or after a very poor season.

In many low rainfall farming systems livestock are still a very important part of the farming system and the level of stubble carryover is reduced after grazing.

Stubble management and seeding position have not impacted greatly on crop production, weeds, disease and pests over three years with relatively high stubble loads for low rainfall farming systems.

Lead research organisation Eyre Peninsula Agricultural Research Foundation
Host research organisation SARDI Minnipa Agricultural Centre
Trial funding source GRDC EPF00001
Related program Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble
Acknowledgments

Thank you to Ian Richter, Brett Hay, Rochelle Wheaton and Katrina Brands for processing samples. Trial funded by GRDC Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble - upper Eyre Peninsula (EPF00001).


Other trial partners Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop type Barley
Treatment type(s)
  • Sowing: Method
  • Stubble: Management
  • Stubble: Height
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Replicated

Minnipa Agricultural Centre 2017

Sowing machinery

Plot size

Sow date 16 May 2017
Harvest date 8 November 2017
Plot size 18m x 2m
Plot replication 3
Fertiliser

base fertiliser of DAP @ 60 kg/ha treated with flutriafol.

In 2015-16 nitrogen treatments were added; Nil or 40 kg/ha urea at seeding and extra depending on seasonal conditions.

Fungicide

Flutriafol on seed

Seed treatment Flutriafol
Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Table 1

# Treatment 1
Ryegrass density (plants/m2) Grain yield (t/ha) Protein (%) Screenings (%) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 Stubble standing high 1.3 0.37 13.9 9 0.83
2 Stubble standing low 1.4 0.41 13.7 8.8 0.89
3 Stubble cultivated 1.1 0.42 14.1 8.9 0.93
4 Stubble removed 0.6 0.36 14.3 9 0.73
5 Inter row 1 0.39 14 9.3 0.87
6 On row 1.1 0.39 14 8.6 0.82
7 *No extra N 0.9 0.39 13.9 8.5 0.86
8 *60 kg/ha N 1.2 0.39 14.1 9.3 0.83

Grain yield t/ha


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Dry matter t/ha


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Protein %


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Ryegrass density plants/m2


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Screenings %


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Site Depth Type pH EC P K N A OC CAT
Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA 0 - 10cm 7.80 23.00 123.00
Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA 0 - 100cm 7.80 23.00 123.00
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA Red loam
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA Calcarosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre SA
2017 418.7mm
2016 386.5mm
2015 362.5mm
2014 418.7mm
2013 359.7mm
2012 398.5mm
2011 425.7mm
2010 407.2mm
2009 421.5mm
2008 355.4mm
2007 357.4mm
2006 394.7mm
2005 368.2mm
2004 367.4mm
2003 380.2mm
2002 375.4mm
2001 420.1mm
2000 422.7mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre SA 2017


Observed climate information

Rainfall avg ann (mm) 325mm
Rainfall avg gsr (mm) 242mm
Rainfall trial total (mm) 281mm
Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 155mm

Derived climate information

Site 23, Minnipa Agricultural Centre SA

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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 04-06-2019 13:35pm AEST