Effect of sowing date on phenology and grain yield of 19 bread wheat and five durum cultivars - Tamworth 2016

2016

Research organisaton
Funding sources

Trial details

Researcher(s) Rick Graham, Stephen Morphett, Michael Dal Santo and Neroli Graham (NSW DPI)
Year(s) 2016
Contributor Department of Primary Industries NSW
Trial location(s) Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW
Further information View external link
Effect of sowing date on phenology and grain yield of 19 bread wheat and five durum cultivars - Tamworth 2016 locations
Aims

This experiment reports the effect of three sowing dates on the timing of anthesis, grain yield and grain quality parameters for a range of commercially available and advanced bread wheat and durum varieties.

The combination of phenology and sowing date (SD) determines the probable timing of environmental stresses (frost and heat stress) at key developmental stages, such as anthesis and during the critical post-flowering grain-fill period. The optimum flowering window is considered an agronomic compromise between avoiding excessive yield loss due to frost and ensuring that flowering occurs early enough to enable a long grain-fill period, before heat and moisture stress restrict yield potential.

Variety response to SD experiments help to determine how new varieties compare in maturity and yield with existing varieties across the sowing window at a regional level. This provides data to better inform growers about varietal response to SD options and therefore to better match variety with SD. Overtime, these experiments provide greater confidence in varietal
performance estimates and flowering behaviour.

Key messages
  • Cooler spring temperatures and excellent plant available soil moisture, favoured the yield potential of longer season and mid maturing wheat varieties in 2016.
  • The mid–late and mid-season bread wheat varieties SuntimeA, LRPB FlankerA, SuntopA, BeckomA, MitchA and EGA GregoryA all performed well from an April 27 sowing date (SD1) with yields >6.5 t/ha. The new long-season spring type SunmaxA, likewise achieved ~6.5 t/ha.
  • The longer season bread wheat varieties LRPB KittyhawkA and SunlambA also demonstrated their yield potential, achieving yields >6 t/ha for SD1.
  • Varieties that performed well across the three sowing dates included EGA GregoryA, MitchA, LRPB FlankerA, SuntopA and BeckomA.
  • The new mid-fast season variety LRPB ReliantA yielded well from a main season and delayed sowing date.
  • Warm autumn temperatures resulted in many spring wheat entries, particularly the more temperature responsive cultivars, reaching anthesis faster (days from effective SD to anthesis) for SD1 compared with SD2. LRPB LancerA for example was ~9 days faster to reach anthesis for SD1 vs SD2.
  • The advanced durum line AGT D043 performed well, achieving yields comparable to the best performing durum DBA AuroraA and bread wheats from a main season sowing date.
Lead research organisation Department of Primary Industries NSW
Host research organisation Department of Primary Industries NSW
Trial funding source GRDC DAN00167
Trial funding source DPI NSW DAN00167
Related program Variety Specific Agronomy Packages for southern, central and northern NSW
Acknowledgments

This experiment is part of the project Variety specific agronomy packages (VSAP; DAN 00167), with joint investment by NSW DPI and GRDC. Technical assistance provided by Jan Hosking, Peter Formann, Rod Bambach, Jim Perfrement, Tyson Peterswald and Natalie Aquilina (all NSW DPI) is also gratefully acknowledged.


Other trial partners Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop type Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Sowing
  • Sowing: Timing
  • Variety
  • Variety: Type
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Randomised,Replicated,Blocked

Tamworth Agricultural Institute 2016

Sow rate or Target density Plant populations (PP): Targeting 100 plants/m2
Sowing machinery

Direct drilled using twin disc openers on 33 cm row spacing.

Sow date SD1: 27 April 2016; SD2: 17 May (Effective 27 May); SD3: 17 June; SD4: 29 July
Harvest date 30 November 2016 HD1 and HD2: 30 November 2016; HD3: 14 December; HD4: 18 December
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication 3
Plot blocking A fully factorial, three replicated, split plot design, with four sowing dates.
Fertiliser

60 kg/ha Granulock Z extra and 195 kg urea (90 kg N/ha) side banded at planting.

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Grain yield and days to anthesis for 23* wheat lines sown over three sowing dates – Tamworth 2016

@T1: (27-04-2016) @T2: (27-05-2016) @T3: (29-07-2016)
# Variety
Yield rank (.) Grain yield (t/ha) Days to anthesis (.) Grain yield (t/ha) Days to anthesis (.) Yield rank (.) Yield rank (.) Grain yield (t/ha) Days to anthesis (.)
1 Beckom 4 6.6 114 6.11 117 7 9 4.55 96
1 Beckom 6 6.59 123 6.17 125 4 1 5.24 96
1 Beckom 19 5.09 104 5.31 110 18 11 4.39 85
2 EGA Gregory 2 6.73 123 6.03 125 8 4 4.8 96
2 EGA Gregory 16 5.65 119 4.99 122 20 22 3.65 96
2 EGA Gregory 8 6.4 142 5.45 139 16 23 3.6 106
3 LRPB Dart 14 5.77 123 5.4 132 17 12 4.37 99
3 LRPB Dart 11 5.94 118 5.97 117 9 3 4.88 91
3 LRPB Dart 15 5.75 115 5.95 118 10 21 3.65 91
4 LRPB Flanker 10 5.97 114 5.87 117 14 6 4.62 91
4 LRPB Flanker 5 6.6 123 6.28 127 3 2 4.92 96
4 LRPB Flanker 18 5.48 122 5.31 123 19 19 3.67 96
5 LRPB Gauntlet 9 6.17 147 5.88 145 13 7 4.59 99
5 LRPB Gauntlet 13 5.85 107 5.89 117 12 17 4.09 91
5 LRPB Gauntlet 1 6.77 129 5.92 134 11 15 4.28 99
6 LRPB Kittyhawk 3 6.69 115 6.29 123 2 5 4.65 91
6 LRPB Kittyhawk 20 5 106 5.83 115 15 14 4.29 89
6 LRPB Kittyhawk 21 4.12 113 4.87 117 21 20 3.67 89
7 LRPB Lancer 12 5.92 124 6.11 125 6 8 4.56 91
7 LRPB Lancer 22 3.55 123 4.35 125 23 16 4.2 91
7 LRPB Lancer 17 5.62 122 6.13 125 5 10 4.41 91
8 LRPB Reliant 23 3.36 123 4.45 127 22 18 4.09 91
8 LRPB Reliant
8 LRPB Reliant
9 LRPB Spitfire
9 LRPB Spitfire
9 LRPB Spitfire
10 LRPB12-0494
10 LRPB12-0494
10 LRPB12-0494
11 Mitch
11 Mitch
11 Mitch
12 Sunguard
12 Sunguard
12 Sunguard
13 Sunlamb
13 Sunlamb
13 Sunlamb
14 Sunmate
14 Sunmate
14 Sunmate
15 Suntime
15 Suntime
15 Suntime
16 Suntop
16 Suntop
16 Suntop
17 SUN 760B
17 SUN 760B
17 SUN 760B
18 190873
18 190873
18 190873
19 AGT D043
19 AGT D043
19 AGT D043
20 Caparoi
20 Caparoi
20 Caparoi
21 DBA Aurora
21 DBA Aurora
21 DBA Aurora
22 DBA Lillaroi
22 DBA Lillaroi
22 DBA Lillaroi

Grain yield t/ha


Loading

Days to anthesis .


Loading

Yield rank .


Loading
Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Site Depth Type pH EC P K N A OC CAT
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW 0 - 120cm 91.00
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW Vertisol
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW Vertosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW
2016 794.7mm
2015 788.3mm
2014 788.1mm
2013 780.3mm
2012 774.5mm
2011 772.8mm
2010 799.1mm
2009 784.3mm
2008 792.0mm
2007 788.5mm
2006 790.3mm
2005 797.4mm
2004 799.1mm
2003 800.0mm
2002 781.0mm
2001 777.0mm
2000 747.4mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

Loading

Climate

Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 550mm

Derived climate information

Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW

Loading
Loading
Loading

Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 23-09-2019 14:27pm AEST