The information contained in this publication is based on knowledge and understanding at the time of writing (July 2016). However, because of advances in knowledge, users are reminded of the need to ensure that the information upon which they rely is up to date and to check the currency of the information with the appropriate officer of NSW Department of Industry, Skills and Regional Development or the user’s independent adviser. The product trade names in this publication are supplied on the understanding that no preference between equivalent products is intended and that the inclusion of a product name does not imply endorsement by the department over any equivalent product from another manufacturer. Recognising that some of the information in this document is provided by third parties, the State of New South Wales, the author and the publisher take no responsibility for the accuracy, currency, reliability and correctness of any information included in the document
Steven Simpfendorfer (NSW DPI)
|Contributor||Department of Primary Industries NSW|
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW
|Further information||View external link|
To examine the impact of crown rot on yield and grain quality in 22 barley, six durum and 34 bread wheat entries across two sowing times at Tamworth in northern NSW in 2014.
Crown rot, caused predominantly by the fungus Fusarium pseudograminearum (Fp), is a major constraint to winter cereal (wheat, barley and durum) production in the northern grains region. Yield loss is related to the expression of whiteheads which are induced by moisture and/or temperature stress during flowering and grain-filling. Previous NSW DPI research has demonstrated that earlier sowing can reduce the expression of crown rot by bringing grain-fill forward a week or two when temperatures are generally lower. Earlier sowing potentially also facilitates increased root growth early in the season which may result in deeper root exploration and access to soil moisture throughout the season. However, sowing time needs to be balanced against the risk of excessive early vegetative growth depleting soil moisture reserves prior to grain-fill and the risk of frost versus terminal heat stress during flowering and grain development. The impact of crown rot on yield and grain quality was examined in 22 barley, 6 durum and 34 bread wheat entries across two sowing times at Tamworth in northern NSW in 2014.
Yield in the presence of crown rot was generally barley > bread wheat > durum across both sowing times, but significant differences were evident between varieties.
Sowing date and variety maturity choice is a balance between frost risk and terminal heat stress in the northern grain region. Both can have a significant impact on grain yield. No frost damage was evident at this site in 2014 with either sowing time but terminal heat stress did occur which was more severe during grain filling with the second sowing time. A three week delay in sowing time resulted in an average 24% reduction in yield across the winter cereal entries. Later sowing pushed grain-fill too far into hotter conditions. This can reduce yield by itself but if there is also an underlying issue with crown rot then delayed sowing significantly exacerbates the expression of this disease with negative impacts on both yield and grain quality.
Varieties do differ in their extent of yield loss from crown rot and in their relative yield in the presence of high levels of infection, which is often referred to as tolerance. This is a function of a varieties level of partial resistance to infection but appears to also interact with its environmental adaptation and maturity relative to the timing of stress (moisture and heat) which exacerbates the expression of crown rot. Generally quicker maturing barley, durum and bread wheat entries were higher yielding in the presence of crown rot infection in this trial. This does not necessarily mean that these varieties have improved levels of resistance to crown rot infection but rather their quicker maturity allowed them to minimize stress during grain filling relative to longer season entries, reducing the expression of crown rot.
If forced into planting a cereal crop in a high crown rot risk situation then some barley varieties may provide a yield advantage over bread wheat in that season, as long as early stress does not occur. Some of the newer bread wheat varieties do appear to be closing this gap to some extent. Barley tends to yield better in the presence of crown rot infection due to its earlier maturity relative to bread wheat, providing an escape mechanism which reduces its exposure to moisture stress during the critical grain filling stage. However, a key message is that this decision is only potentially maximising profit in the current season. Growing barley over bread wheat will not assist with the reduction of crown rot inoculum levels as barley is very susceptible to infection. Significant yield loss is still occurring in the best of the barley and bread wheat varieties in the presence of high crown rot infection. Variety selection can improve yield in the presence of crown rot, though all varieties still suffer yield loss, which can maximise profit in the current season but this will not reduce inoculum levels for subsequent crops. Winter cereal crop and variety choice is therefore not the sole solution to crown rot but rather just one element of an integrated management strategy to limit losses from this disease.
|Lead research organisation||
Department of Primary Industries NSW
|Host research organisation||N/A|
|Trial funding source||GRDC DAN00175|
|Trial funding source||DPI NSW|
National crown rot epidemiology and management program
This research was co-funded by NSW DPI and GRDC under project DAN00175: National crown rot epidemiology and management. Thanks to Tim O’Brien, Robyn Shapland, Paul Nash, Rachael Bannister, Patrick Mortell, Finn Fensbo, Karen Cassin, Kay Warren and Carla Lombardo (all NSW DPI) for technical assistance.
|Other trial partners||Not specified|
|Sow date||20 May 2014 TOS1: 20 May 2014; TOS2: 10 June 2014|
|Harvest date||17 November 2014|
|Plot size||Not specified|
|Plot replication||Not specified|
|Plot randomisation||Twenty-two barley; six durum wheat and 34 bread wheat entries|
180 kg/ha urea and 50 kg/ha Granulock® Supreme Z at sowing
|Inoculant||Added (plus) or no added (minus) crown rot at sowing using sterilised durum grain colonised by at least five different isolates of Fp.|
|Sow date||Not specified|
|Harvest date||Not specified|
|Plot size||Not specified|
|Plot replication||Not specified|
|Plot randomisation||Not specified|
||Protein - 20th May (t/Ha)||Screenings (%) 20th May (%)||Yield - no CR 20th May (t/ha)||Yield - no CR 10th June (t/Ha)||Protein - 10th June (t/Ha)||Screenings (%) 10th June (%)||Yield - plus CR 20th May (kg/ha)||Yield - plus CR 10th June (t/Ha)|
|1||█ Barley: Bass||15.2||8.6||4.71||3.52||15.5||16.5||4.27||2.34|
|13||█ La Trobe||13.7||11.7||5.53||4.96||14.4||12.2||4.77||4.64|
|17||█ Scope CL||14.9||9.9||4.72||4.09||14.8||13.9||4.03||3.41|
|19||█ SY Rattler||13.9||22.1||4.47||4.09||14.2||26.1||3.45||3.16|
|23||█ DURUM: 290564||14.4||15.1||3.29||2.21||15.2||26||2.58||1.44|
|25||█ DBA Lillaroi||14.5||15.4||3.02||1.94||14.9||31.2||1.9||0.97|
|29||█ WHEAT: Baxter||13.9||7.1||4.49||3.4||15||7.6||3.75||2.86|
|35||█ EGA Gregory||13.1||11.2||3.79||2.69||13.5||21.4||3.01||1.97|
|36||█ Ega Wylie||14.5||11.2||4.25||2.89||15.3||12.4||3.22||2.29|
|38||█ Elmore Cl Plus||13.8||10.3||4.04||3.2||15.1||22.1||3.65||2.39|
|39||█ Emu Rock||14.2||12.1||4.35||3.52||14.9||13.2||3.95||2.96|
|41||█ Grenade CL Plus||12.6||8.2||3.87||2.97||13.7||13.8||3.19||1.91|
|43||█ Justica CL Plus||14.5||14.5||3.6||2.35||15.2||20||2.36||1.84|
|Rainfall avg ann (mm)||971.5mm|
SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.