Response of barley, durum and bread wheat varieties to crown rot across two sowing times – Tamworth 2014

2014

Research organisaton
Funding sources

Trial details

Researcher(s) Steven Simpfendorfer (NSW DPI)
Year(s) 2014
Contributor Department of Primary Industries NSW
Trial location(s) Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW
Further information View external link
Response of barley, durum and bread wheat varieties to crown rot across two sowing times – Tamworth 2014 locations
Aims

To examine the impact of crown rot on yield and grain quality in 22 barley, six durum and 34 bread wheat entries across two sowing times at Tamworth in northern NSW in 2014. 

Crown rot, caused predominantly by the fungus Fusarium pseudograminearum (Fp), is a major constraint to winter cereal (wheat, barley and durum) production in the northern grains region. Yield loss is related to the expression of whiteheads which are induced by moisture and/or temperature stress during flowering and grain-filling. Previous NSW DPI research has demonstrated that earlier sowing can reduce the expression of crown rot by bringing grain-fill forward a week or two when temperatures are generally lower. Earlier sowing potentially also facilitates increased root growth early in the season which may result in deeper root exploration and access to soil moisture throughout the season. However, sowing time needs to be balanced against the risk of excessive early vegetative growth depleting soil moisture reserves prior to grain-fill and the risk of frost versus terminal heat stress during flowering and grain development. The impact of crown rot on yield and grain quality was examined in 22 barley, 6 durum and 34 bread wheat entries across two sowing times at Tamworth in northern NSW in 2014.

Key messages

  Key findings:

Yield in the presence of crown rot was generally barley > bread wheat > durum across both sowing times, but significant differences were evident between varieties.

  • Barley, bread wheat and durum varieties differ in their extent of yield loss from crown rot and their actual yield and grain quality (screenings) in the presence of this disease.
  • However, all varieties are susceptible to crown rot infection and will not significantly reduce inoculum levels for subsequent crops. Variety choice is not a sole solution to crown rot.

Conclusions

  • Sowing date and variety maturity choice is a balance between frost risk and terminal heat stress in the northern grain region. Both can have a significant impact on grain yield. No frost damage was evident at this site in 2014 with either sowing time but terminal heat stress did occur which was more severe during grain filling with the second sowing time. A three week delay in sowing time resulted in an average 24% reduction in yield across the winter cereal entries.  Later sowing pushed grain-fill too far into hotter conditions. This can reduce yield by itself but if there is also an underlying issue with crown rot then delayed sowing significantly exacerbates the expression of this disease with negative impacts on both yield and grain quality.

    Varieties do differ in their extent of yield loss from crown rot and in their relative yield in the presence of high levels of infection, which is often referred to as tolerance. This is a function of a varieties level of partial resistance to infection but appears to also interact with its environmental adaptation and maturity relative to the timing of stress (moisture and heat) which exacerbates the expression of crown rot. Generally quicker maturing barley, durum and bread wheat entries were higher yielding in the presence of crown rot infection in this trial. This does not necessarily mean that these varieties have improved levels of resistance to crown rot infection but rather their quicker maturity allowed them to minimize stress during grain filling relative to longer season entries, reducing the expression of crown rot.

    If forced into planting a cereal crop in a high crown rot risk situation then some barley varieties may provide a yield advantage over bread wheat in that season, as long as early stress does not occur. Some of the newer bread wheat varieties do appear to be closing this gap to some extent. Barley tends to yield better in the presence of crown rot infection due to its earlier maturity relative to bread wheat, providing an escape mechanism which reduces its exposure to moisture stress during the critical grain filling stage. However, a key message is that this decision is only potentially maximising profit in the current season. Growing barley over bread wheat will not assist with the reduction of crown rot inoculum levels as barley is very susceptible to infection. Significant yield loss is still occurring in the best of the barley and bread wheat varieties in the presence of high crown rot infection. Variety selection can improve yield in the presence of crown rot, though all varieties still suffer yield loss, which can maximise profit in the current season but this will not reduce inoculum levels for subsequent crops. Winter cereal crop and variety choice is therefore not the sole solution to crown rot but rather just one element of an integrated management strategy to limit losses from this disease.

Lead research organisation Department of Primary Industries NSW
Host research organisation N/A
Trial funding source GRDC DAN00175
Trial funding source DPI NSW
Related program National crown rot epidemiology and management program
Acknowledgments

This research was co-funded by NSW DPI and GRDC under project DAN00175: National crown rot epidemiology and management. Thanks to Tim O’Brien, Robyn Shapland, Paul Nash, Rachael Bannister, Patrick Mortell, Finn Fensbo, Karen Cassin, Kay Warren and Carla Lombardo (all NSW DPI) for technical assistance.


Other trial partners Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop types Barley
Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Crop
  • Inoculant
  • Variety
  • Variety: Type
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Replicated

Tamworth Agricultural Institute 2014 Barley

Sow date 20 May 2014 TOS1: 20 May 2014; TOS2: 10 June 2014
Harvest date 17 November 2014
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Plot randomisation Twenty-two barley; six durum wheat and 34 bread wheat entries
Fertiliser

180 kg/ha urea and 50 kg/ha Granulock® Supreme Z at sowing

Inoculant Added (plus) or no added (minus) crown rot at sowing using sterilised durum grain colonised by at least five different isolates of Fp.

Tamworth Agricultural Institute 2014 Wheat

Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Plot randomisation Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Inoculant Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Table 1

# Variety
Protein - 20th May (t/Ha) Screenings (%) 20th May (%) Yield - no CR 20th May (t/ha) Yield - no CR 10th June (t/Ha) Protein - 10th June (t/Ha) Screenings (%) 10th June (%) Yield - plus CR 20th May (kg/ha) Yield - plus CR 10th June (t/Ha)
1 Barley: Bass 15.2 8.6 4.71 3.52 15.5 16.5 4.27 2.34
2 Buloke 14.4 10.5 4.76 3.89 14.7 18.2 4.15 3.02
3 Commander 14.2 15.6 5.14 4.54 14.1 13.7 4.25 3.69
4 Compass 13.8 9.4 5.15 4.67 13.8 10.8 4.59 3.71
5 Fairview 15 13.8 4.91 3.46 14.7 21.6 3.74 2.79
6 Fathom 15.1 9.1 4.89 4.38 14.8 9.2 4.57 3.67
7 Flinders 15.8 12.8 4.88 3.6 15.3 31.7 3.48 3.03
8 Gairdner 16.3 19.5 4.55 3.52 15.6 29.7 3.7 2.86
9 Granger 14.9 8 5.2 4.16 15.2 13.4 4.34 3.43
10 Grout 13.5 12.1 4.89 4.05 14.2 18.1 3.79 3.42
11 Hindmarsh 14.4 10 5.33 5.08 14.8 9.5 4.91 4.48
12 IGB1140 16.4 7.7 4.62 3.99 15.1 13.1 3.82 3.11
13 La Trobe 13.7 11.7 5.53 4.96 14.4 12.2 4.77 4.64
14 Navigator 15.9 19.4 4.33 3.67 15.1 25.2 3.67 2.79
15 NRB121156 15.3 4.8 4.61 3.49 15.3 12.7 3.61 2.81
16 Oxford 15.7 16.9 4.43 3.06 14.1 33.4 3.11 2.2
17 Scope CL 14.9 9.9 4.72 4.09 14.8 13.9 4.03 3.41
18 Skipper 14.8 9 5.16 4.63 14.6 7.8 4.81 4.31
19 SY Rattler 13.9 22.1 4.47 4.09 14.2 26.1 3.45 3.16
20 Urambie 15.4 60.5 4.39 3.26 15 54.1 3.91 2.56
21 Westminster 14.9 18.7 4.19 3.08 14.7 23.4 3.54 2.28
22 Wimmera 15.9 16.3 4.62 3.58 15.7 20.7 3.84 3
23 DURUM: 290564 14.4 15.1 3.29 2.21 15.2 26 2.58 1.44
24 Caparoi 14.8 23.3 2.51 1.46 15 39.1 1.64 0.88
25 DBA Lillaroi 14.5 15.4 3.02 1.94 14.9 31.2 1.9 0.97
26 DBA-Aurora 14.3 21.9 2.87 1.79 14.5 30.6 1.69 1.22
27 Hyperno 14.7 22.1 3.34 2.16 15.4 35.8 2.5 1.32
28 Jandaroi 13.9 8 3.29 2.61 14.5 14.1 2.54 2.09
29 WHEAT: Baxter 13.9 7.1 4.49 3.4 15 7.6 3.75 2.86
30 Condo 12.7 10.7 4.97 3.4 14 15.5 4.03 2.82
31 Corack 12.6 10.8 4.43 3.58 13.7 10.4 3.88 3.13
32 Crusader 13.3 14.7 4.16 3.57 13.4 11.9 3.43 3.19
33 Dart 13.2 14.3 4.45 3.5 13.9 16.3 3.56 3.02
34 Derrimut 13.6 13.2 4.4 3.11 14.5 18 3.87 2.49
35 EGA Gregory 13.1 11.2 3.79 2.69 13.5 21.4 3.01 1.97
36 Ega Wylie 14.5 11.2 4.25 2.89 15.3 12.4 3.22 2.29
37 Einstein 16.5 9 0.81 0.25 16.2 9 0.76 0.22
38 Elmore Cl Plus 13.8 10.3 4.04 3.2 15.1 22.1 3.65 2.39
39 Emu Rock 14.2 12.1 4.35 3.52 14.9 13.2 3.95 2.96
40 Gauntlet 13.9 6.4 3.92 3.06 14.6 10.1 2.96 2.14
41 Grenade CL Plus 12.6 8.2 3.87 2.97 13.7 13.8 3.19 1.91
42 Impala 13.2 8.6 4.18 3.52 14 15.8 3.51 2.8
43 Justica CL Plus 14.5 14.5 3.6 2.35 15.2 20 2.36 1.84
44 Kiora 14.7 14.9 3.82 2.41 15.8 30.2 3.06 1.89
45 Lancer 15.5 7.3 3.78 2.92 15.9 17.1 3.13 2.46
46 Lincoln 13.9 20.9 3.21 2.09 15.1 28.5 2.43 1.55
47 Livingston 13.7 11 4.4 3.53 14.5 17.5 3.36 2.3
48 LPB09-0515 14.1 17.1 4.35 3.01 15.1 24 3.38 2.01
49 Mace 12.8 11.6 4.3 3.51 13.6 15.3 3.73 2.79
50 Merlin 14.5 8.7 4.48 3.51 16 11.5 3.82 2.46
51 Mitch 13.2 10.8 4.2 3.15 14.4 16.8 3.32 2.6
52 Phantom 14 10.5 3.98 2.75 14.8 14.2 3.18 1.87
53 Spitfire 14.6 8.6 4.28 3.55 16 9.1 3.88 2.84
54 Strzelecki 14.8 16.3 3.07 1.76 15.1 30.9 2.48 1.21
55 Sunguard 14.1 7.9 4.07 3.26 14.3 12.1 3.6 2.9
56 Sunmate 12.5 10.2 4.27 3.3 13.5 11.6 3.62 2.35
57 Suntime 13.3 10.9 4.35 3.1 14.3 15.7 3.71 2.41
58 Suntop 13.5 13.7 4.17 3.37 14.4 12.6 3.84 2.62
59 Sunvale 15.2 11.1 2.99 2.71 15.7 21.1 2.66 2.03
60 Ventura 13.6 14.1 4.33 3.57 14.1 15.5 3.65 2.84
61 Viking 14.2 14.1 4.05 2.22 15.4 28.8 2.92 1.3
62 Wallup 13.9 7.7 4.52 3.56 15.2 10.3 4.01 2.89

Protein - 10th June t/Ha


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Protein - 20th May t/Ha


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Screenings (%) 10th June %


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Screenings (%) 20th May %


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Yield - no CR 10th June t/Ha


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Yield - no CR 20th May t/ha


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Yield - plus CR 10th June t/Ha


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Yield - plus CR 20th May kg/ha


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Tamworth Agricultural Institute, NSW Vertosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW
2014 788.1mm
2013 780.3mm
2012 774.5mm
2011 772.8mm
2010 799.1mm
2009 784.3mm
2008 792.0mm
2007 788.5mm
2006 790.3mm
2005 797.4mm
2004 799.1mm
2003 800.0mm
2002 781.0mm
2001 777.0mm
2000 747.4mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW 2014


Observed climate information

Rainfall avg ann (mm) 971.5mm

Derived climate information

Tamworth Agricultural Institute NSW

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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 23-09-2019 14:48pm AEST