Southern Pulse Agronomy

Southern Pulse Agronomy (SPA) has been a tri-state research program led by Agriculture Victoria Senior Research Agronomist, Dr Jason Brand, with funding from GRDC, DEDJTR-Vic, SARDI and NSW DPI that aims to increase farm profitability, reliability and profitability of pulses in southern Australia.

SPA continues to deliver the latest information on new pulse varieties and their integration with the latest farming systems. Key learnings from the SPA program also provide advice to breeding programs on how latest farm management practices may influence breeding needs for the future.

OFT information summary

Years: 2000 to 2019
366 published trials
67 trial sites
Southern Pulse Agronomy
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115 trial projects found Matching active filters and within map area

113 results have a trial report available 2 results have export data available 47 trials are CC BY 4.0
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Aims:

To evaluate the effects of break crop species on the yield of subsequent wheat crop.

Warnertown, SA Clay loam
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To evaluate the suitability of different pulse species as break crops for different climatic, soil and biotic stress conditions.

Coomandook, SA Eudunda, SA Mundulla, SA Warnertown, SA Sandy loam Clay loam
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To evaluate the impacts of the soil amelioration practices of deep ripping and organic matter inputs on the growth and production of lupin, lentil and chickpea grown on deep sandy soils in the Mallee.

Crop type: Chickpeas,Lentils,Lupins 3 trials Crop Type Soil amelioration
Kooloonong, VIC
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To investigate adaptability chickpea, faba bean, field pea, lupin, vetch and lentil varieties and breeding lines to spring sowing. Specifically, in chickpea there was a focus on new early flowering breeding lines with improved cold tolerance during the pod set phase.

Gymbowen, VIC Clay
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To increase productivity of pulses in the LRZ through increasing podding height, plant height and harvestability. This work builds on previous successful trials in the SA Mallee

Warnertown, SA Wudinna, SA Clay loam
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To evaluate effects of soil amendments on yields of pulses grown in nutrient deficient soils

Crop type: Faba beans,Chickpeas,Lentils 3 trials Soil Preparation Variety Type
Riverton, SA
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To understand the impact of frost, and the interaction of stubble management, ripping and frost on pulses

Crop type: Faba beans,Field peas,Lentils 6 trials Frost Stubble Management
Farrell Flat, SA Kimba, SA Clay loam
Source Data Unavailable
Important Caution The results of this trial may have been impacted by unusual or adverse events
Crop disease
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

To investigate the adaptability of a range of lentil varieties and breeding lines, specifically on the more acidic soils of the Dookie region.

Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop Type Variety Type
Dookie,
Source Data Unavailable
Research organisaton
Southern Pulse Agronomy

Aims:

  • To determine safe margins for applying post sowing pre-emergent herbicides on herbicide tolerant lentil variety, PBA Hallmark XT grown on different soil types.
  • To assess the herbicide damage recovery effects of zinc.
  • Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Herbicide Type
    Warnertown, SA Wudinna, SA Clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides to control radish in pulses.

    Crop type: Faba beans,Lentils 2 trials Herbicide Type
    Coomandook, SA Clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the response of the new ‘imi’ tolerant variety PBA Hallmark XT and the breeding line with improved tolerance to Group C herbicides, SP1333, to novel herbicide strategies involving Group B and C herbicide products.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Type
    Horsham, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate imidazolinone herbicide tolerant varieties of lentil, field pea and faba bean to simulated residues of Group B herbicide.

    Pinnaroo, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate enhanced tolerance of PBA Hallmark XT compared to PBA Jumbo2 to Group B herbicides applied post sowing pre emergence (PSPE) or at different in-crop application timings.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Type
    Horsham, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the impact of rate and application timing on tolerance of PBA Hurricane XT to a range of Group C herbicide on deep sandy soils in the Mallee.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Rate Herbicide Timing
    Pinnaroo, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To compare the level of herbicide tolerance in SP1333 (a new genotype with improved tolerance to Group C herbicides) against PBA Hallmark XT to pre- and post-emergent applications of ‘Gp C’ at various rates. 

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate Group B herbicide tolerance in lentil XT varieties in response to simulated residues and postemergent herbicide applications.

    Crop type: Lentils 3 trials Herbicide Type Variety Type
    Tooligie, Mundulla, SA Yeelanna, SA Clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate agronomic strategies to overcome constrained soils where lentil is grown in high intensity production zones of the Yorke Peninsula.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Inoculant Soil Preparation
    Bute, SA Clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To promote early vigour to improve biomass and yield partitioning in lentil

    Crop type: Lentils 3 trials Inoculant Rate
    Tooligie, Kimba, SA Strawberry Hill, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To investigate the response of lentil to application of microbial inoculants and micro and macro nutrients across a sandhill and swale soil at Ouyen and a sandy loam at Curyo.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Inoculant Soil Preparation
    Curyo, VIC Ouyen, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the effect of sowing time and seeding rates on the production of key lentil varieties grown in the Pinnaroo district.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Timing
    Pinnaroo, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the adaptability of lentil cultivars to the Victorian HRZ with an autumn or spring sowing date.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Timing
    Inverleigh, VIC Loam over clay
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To evaluate the adaptability of lentil cultivars to the Victorian HRZ with an autumn or spring sowing date.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Timing
    Inverleigh, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To assess the impact of seeding time on the production of field pea, lentil and chickpea crops sown in in the low rainfall zone.

    Loxton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To investigate the adaptability of a range of lentil varieties and breeding lines to different sowing dates.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Sowing Timing
    Horsham, VIC Ouyen, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To identify potential yield loss from the isolates of Ascochyta lentis in PBA Hurricane XT.

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety
    Maitland, NSW
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To compare the performance of a range of pulse varieties and sowing dates in two contrasting soil types in North Central Victoria.

    Crop type: Faba beans,Chickpeas,Field peas,Lentils,Lupins,Vetch 12 trials Soil Type Sowing Timing Variety Type
    Pyramid Hill East, VIC Pyramid Hill West, VIC Clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    To compare the performance of a range of pulse varieties and sowing dates in two contrasting soil types in North Central Victoria.

    Pyramid Hill East, VIC Pyramid Hill West, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Southern Pulse Agronomy

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Type
    Pinnaroo, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Herbicide Timing Variety Type
    Pyramid Hill, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate Variety Type
    Horsham, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate Herbicide Timing Variety Type
    Ouyen, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate Variety Type
    Horsham, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fertiliser Fertiliser Type Variety Type
    Ouyen, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Timing Variety Type
    Horsham, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Sandy clay loam
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Variety Type
    Pimpinio, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To assess the agronomic benefits of seeding pulses into standing cereal stubble and identify optimum standing stubble retention management strategies for maximising yields.

    Crop type: Field peas,Lentils,Chickpeas 3 trials Stubble Stubble Management Variety Variety Type
    Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Type
    Pimpinio, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Pimpinio, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Type
    Melton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To evaluate pulse options in the upper Eyre Peninsula region following recent increased interest in alternative pulse options to field peas from growers and agronomists.

    Minnipa, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To evaluate the optimum sowing density of new ‘high biomass’ lentil varieties alongside older varieties at two sowing dates.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Variety Type
    Melton, SA Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Type
    Pimpinio, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Type
    Westmere, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To compare new lentil varieties with current commercial varieties as well as current commercial field pea varieties and Kaspa type pea blends on two different soil types.

    Crop type: Lentils,Field peas 2 trials Soil Soil Type Sowing Sowing Timing
    Hart, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To determine whether sowing inter-row in standing stubbles varying in stubble height will benefit yield of field pea, lentil and chickpea varieties.

    Minlaton, SA Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Melton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide
    Arthurton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To identify levels of tolerance to a range of Group B herbicides in lentil cultivars which have been selected from the Pulse Breeding Australia (PBA) program for improved tolerance to Group B herbicides.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Fungicide Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate
    Arthurton, SA Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To maximise yield of new lentil varieties through the identification of optimum sowing dates and stubble management strategies.

    Crop type: Lentils 3 trials Stubble Management
    Pinery, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Wagga Wagga, NSW
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Yenda, NSW
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Melton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To identify levels of tolerance to a range of group B herbicides, as preliminary work for the application of a registration for post-emergent use in this variety.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate
    Arthurton, SA Mallala, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Herbicide Herbicide Type Herbicide Rate
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Sowing Sowing Timing
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Sowing Sowing Timing
    Paskeville, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Stubble Stubble Management
    Mallala, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Wagga Wagga, NSW
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing
    Yenda, NSW
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Variety Type
    Rupanyup, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Vectis, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Crop
    Melton, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Sowing Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Paskeville, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Sowing Row spacing
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Sowing Row spacing Stubble
    Vectis, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Stubble Stubble Management
    Mallala, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To assess wether recent field pea breeding advancements in resistance to blackspot are significant enough to allow management changes to sowing time in this crop.

    Crop type: Chickpeas,Field peas,Lentils 6 trials Variety Variety Type
    Balaklava, SA Turretfield, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To report on lentil disease management x time of sowing, Paskeville and Maitland, Yorke Peninsula, SA

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Fungicide Fungicide Application Variety Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Paskeville, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Sowing Row spacing Variety Variety Type
    Curyo, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Timing Sowing Row spacing Variety Variety Type
    Minnipa, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To determine the correct maturity timing required in faba beans for successful crop topping practice.

    Crop type: Chickpeas,Field peas,Lentils,Faba beans 4 trials Crop Crop Protection Variety Variety Type
    Turretfield, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To maximise production advantages of new lentil varieties through the development of appropriate disease management strategies.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Fungicide Sowing Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Willamulka, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Sowing Rate Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Beulah, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Sowing Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Dimboola, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Fungicide Fungicide Type Fungicide Rate Fungicide Timing Fungicide Application Variety Variety Type
    Dimboola, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To maximise production advantages of new lentil varieties through the identification of optimum sowing times and plant densities.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Sowing Sowing Rate Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Willamulka, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Rate Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Beulah, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Rate Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Dimboola, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Row spacing Variety Variety Type
    Beulah, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Sowing Sowing Row spacing Variety Variety Type
    Dimboola, VIC
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    Crop type: Lentils 1 trial Variety Variety Type
    Turretfield, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To recommend agronomic and fungicide management strategies to minimise botrytis grey mould infections and maximum grain yield and quality in the new lentil varieties.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Willamulka, SA
    Trial Report Unavailable Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To test the yield response of current and newly released lentil varieties to changes in plant populations and sowing dates in the main lentil growing regions of SA.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Variety Type
    Maitland, NSW Willamulka, SA
    Trial Report Unavailable Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To recommend agronomic and fungicide management strategies to minimise botrytis grey  mould infections and maximum grain yield and quality in the new lentil varieties.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Fungicide Variety Variety Type
    Melton, SA Sandilands, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    • To test the yield response of current and newly released lentil varieties to changes in plant populations and sowing dates across the main lentil growing regions of SA.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Sowing Sowing Rate Sowing Timing Variety Variety Type
    Melton, SA Sandilands, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding sources

    Aims:

    To determine the optimum disease management strategy for CIPAL 203.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Fungicide Variety Variety Type
    Melton, SA Sandilands, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Funding source

    Aims:

    To determine optimum sowing dates and plant densities for CIPAL 203.

    Crop type: Lentils 2 trials Variety Type
    Melton, SA Sandilands, SA
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisaton
    Funding source

    Aims:

    To identify the key agronomic management requirements for increased productivity and profitability of pulses (field peas, chickpeas and lentils) under variable seasonal conditions on soils other than grey clays.

    Crop type: Field peas,Lentils 6 trials Variety Variety Type
    Kaniva, VIC Rosebery, VIC Warne, VIC Duplex
    Source Data Unavailable
    Research organisatons
    Funding source