Role of stubble management on the severity and duration of frost and its impact on grain yield

CC BY 4.0

Research organisaton

Trial details

Researcher(s) Ben Biddulph (DAFWA)
Sarah Hyde (Facey Group)
Rebecca Jenkinson ( Living Farm)
Year(s) 2013
Contributor Facey Group
Trial location(s) Wickepin, WA
Role of stubble management on the severity and duration of frost and its impact on grain yield locations

To quantify the impact of stubble on the extent, severity and duration of frost and determine its effect on canopy temperature and grain yield.

Key messages

Although the Wickepin site did not experience damaging frost events in 2013, results show that the severity (minimum temperature) and duration (hrs <0°C) of frost increased at positions lower in the landscape and was less severe under cultivation. Standing stubble treatments also showed colder temperatures than removed stubble treatments. These results also supported the two other trials conducted in Western Australia during 2013 that showed stubble can have an influence on crop canopy temperature.

Lead research organisation Facey Group
Host research organisation Facey Group
Related program N/A

Gary Lang, Wyoming Downs for providing the trial site and setting up the stubble treatments, carrying out the seeding, agronomic management and harvest of the trial. Sarah Hyde, Facey Group for the site selection, data collection and sensor installation. Rebecca O’Leary, DAFWA Statistician, Peter Hanson, The weather logger for installation maintenance and data acquisition of onsite weather stations. The following people are acknowledged for their significant contribution for the successful completion of the trial; Richard Devlin and Rebecca Clarke, Living Farm, Nathan Height and Mike Baker, DAFWA.

Other trial partners Department of Agriculture and Food
Download the trial report to view additional trial information


Crop type Cereal (Grain): Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Adverse Effects Management: Frost
  • Stubble: Management
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Replicated

Wickepin 2013

Sow rate or Target density 65Kg/ha
Sow date 31 May 2013
Harvest date Unknown
Plot size 200m X 40m
Plot replication 3

35Kg/ha MAP, 30L/ha Flexi-N

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Table 1

# Variety
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Grain yield (t/ha) Maturity (days from seeding to flowering) (no. of days) NDVI (.)
1 Mace High Landscape Standing 3.05 115 0.46
2 Mace High Landscape Removed 3.58 113 0.4
3 Mace High Landscape Cultivated 4.51 113 0.57
4 Mace Mid landscape Standing 4.95 114 0.6
5 Mace Mid landscape Removed 3.89 112 0.53
6 Mace Mid landscape Cultivated 5.09 114 0.6
7 Mace Low Landscape Standing 4.38 114 0.59
8 Mace Low Landscape Removed 4.39 114 0.63
9 Mace Low Landscape Cultivated 4.61 115 0.55

Grain yield t/ha


Maturity (days from seeding to flowering) no. of days



Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Wickepin, WA Sandy loam
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Wickepin, WA Sodosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Wickepin WA
2013 210.2mm
2012 222.9mm
2011 187.3mm
2010 176.5mm
2009 187.7mm
2008 169.3mm
2007 158.8mm
2006 223.1mm
2005 217.7mm
2004 180.7mm
2003 225.4mm
2002 195.5mm
2001 209.8mm
2000 273.0mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties



Derived climate information

No observed climate data available for this trial.
Derived climate data is determined from trial site location and national weather sources.

Wickepin WA


Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.

Trial report and links

2013 trial report

Trial last modified: 14-01-2023 22:53pm AEST