Grain & Graze 3 - The impact of livestock on paddock health


Research organisatons
Funding source

Trial details


Mixed livestock and cropping systems have an important role to play in the diversification, risk management and sustainability of farming in low rainfall areas. The majority of farms in these areas use livestock to provide enterprise diversity and risk management, however grazing also offers a range of other system benefits that are generally not accounted for in mixed farming enterprises. As a result of increasing cropping intensity in these systems, there is a perception of declining productivity of the pasture phase, with pastures remaining largely unimproved and most farming systems continuing to rely on self-regenerating medic for livestock feed and nitrogen (N).

Pastures in these lower input mixed farming systems are generally set stocked and grazed at low stocking rates throughout the season with minimal effort to manage grazing for optimal production. Farmers are hesitant to increase grazing in the break phase of the rotation partly due to the perception that livestock can damage soil health, remove organic matter and induce weed germination, but also because their efforts are often concentrated on the cropping enterprise due to the income it brings into the business. With prices for livestock (both meat and wool) increasing over the past decade, and the valuable nutrition and disease break effect that the pasture phase provides to subsequent cereal crops, interest in the productivity and profitability of medic and livestock systems has increased.

A long-term study was established at the Minnipa Agricultural Centre from 2008 to 2016 (EPFS Summaries 2008 to 2015) to assess the systems impact of grazing on crop and pasture production, and soil health. The nine-year broad acre demonstration with a wheat-medic rotation (Table 1) also tested whether productivity could be improved under a higher input system (e.g. higher fertiliser and seeding rates, establishment of improved pasture) compared to a lower input and more traditional system (district practice seed and fertiliser inputs, volunteer pasture), and what effect this had on soil fertility.

Key messages
  • Over nine seasons, incorporating livestock into the rotation improved overall system outcomes in this trial, including; increased nitrogen cycling and water use efficiency, reduction in weed and pest populations and no negative effects on cereal performance or soil health, while value adding to stubble and pastures by grazing.
  • The high input grazed farming system had a gross margin of over $100/ha/year more than lower input and ungrazed treatments over the nine-year trial period.
Lead research organisation Southern Farming Systems
Host research organisation SARDI Minnipa Agricultural Centre
Trial funding source GRDC SFS00028
Related program Grain & Graze 3

I gratefully acknowledge the help of Jake Hull, Wade Shepperd and John Kelsh for site management and Ian Richter, Sue Budarick and Brett Hay for data collection. I would also like to thank Barry Mudge with his assistance in the basic economic analysis of the trial. The Eyre Peninsula Grain and Graze 3 project is funded by GRDC (SFS00028).

Other trial partners Participating organisations: EP, BCG, MSF, Ag Excellence Alliance.
Download the trial report to view additional trial information


Crop type Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Fertiliser: Rate
  • Grazing: Regime
  • Sowing: Rate
Trial type Demonstration
Trial design Unreplicated

Minnipa Agricultural Centre 2016

Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size 100m x 350m
Plot replication 1


Wheat sown @ 50 kg/ha + 40 kg/ha DAP

Wheat sown @ 70 kg/ha + 60 kg/ha DAP

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Trial results Table 1

# Treatment 1
Gross margin low input (ungrazed) ($/ha) Gross margin high input (ungrazed) ($/ha) Gross margin low input (grazed) ($/ha) Gross margin high input (grazed) ($/ha)
1 2008 wheat -49 -42 -49 -42
2 2009 wheat 829 879 803 905
3 2010 medic -23 -39 96 284
4 2011 wheat 284 366 362 465
5 2012 medic -27 -27 26 89
6 2013 wheat 332 390 356 464
7 2014 wheat 525 677 598 749
8 2015 medic -15 -60 86 151
9 2016 wheat 339 490 372 490

Gross margin high input (grazed) $/ha


Gross margin high input (ungrazed) $/ha


Gross margin low input (grazed) $/ha


Gross margin low input (ungrazed) $/ha

Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Site 17, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA Red sandy loam
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source
Trial site Soil order
Site 17, Minnipa Agricultural Centre, SA Calcarosol
National soil grid Source
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties



Site 17, Minnipa Agricultural Centre SA 2016

Observed climate information

Rainfall avg ann (mm) 325mm
Rainfall avg gsr (mm) 241mm
Rainfall trial total (mm) 391mm
Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 268mm

Derived climate information

Site 17, Minnipa Agricultural Centre SA


Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.