Monitoring the performance of nitrogen application to wheat under full stubble retention

2016

Research organisaton
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Nick Poole (FAR Australia)
Michael Straight (FAR Australia)
Year(s) 2016
Contributor Riverine Plains
Trial location(s) Site 1, Corowa, NSW
Site 2, Dookie, VIC
Monitoring the performance of nitrogen application to wheat under full stubble retention locations
Aims

To monitor the performance of nitrogen application to wheat under full stubble retention.

Key messages
  • At both Corowa, NSW and Dookie, Victoria, there were significant yield responses to applied nitrogen (N), with maximum yields of 6.25t/ha at Corowa and 6.21t/ha at Dookie.
  • Both sites gave identical unfertilised yields, averaging 4.67t/ha.
  • Yield responses were associated with significantly higher dry matter (DM) production and greater nitrogen offtake when 120kg N/ha was applied at both sites.
  • The maximum nitrogen offtake in the unfertilised crops at both sites equated to about 70–80kg N/ha, which was similar to the 95kg N/ha available to the crop at the start of the season at Corowa and the 65kg N/ha available at the start of the season at Dookie.
  • The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) response index (NDVI of fertilised:NDVI of unfertilised plots equal to 1.17) was measured at third node stage (GS33) and equated to maximum measured yield responses of 1.5–1.6t/ha to applied nitrogen.
  • Applying an extra 60kg N/ha on top of the initial 60kg N/ha at Corowa (total 120kg N/ha) produced an average yield increase of 0.17t/ha (maximum 0.25t/ha), which was not cost effective (data not shown).
  • At Dookie in 2016 applying 120kg N/ha gave greater returns and was economically worthwhile based on an extra 0.64t/ha for the additional 60kg N/ha applied (data not shown).
Lead research organisation Riverine Plains
Host research organisation Riverine Plains
Trial funding source GRDC RPI00009
Related program Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble
Acknowledgments

The trial was carried out as part of the Riverine Plains Inc GRDC-funded project Maintaining Profitable Farming Systems with Retained Stubble in the Riverine Plains Region.
Thank you the farmer co-operators, Mark Harmer, Dookie, Victoria and Denis Tomlinson, Corowa, NSW.


Other trial partners FAR Australia
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop type Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Fertiliser: Rate
  • Fertiliser: Timing
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Replicated

Corowa 2016

Sow date 2 May 2016
Harvest date 10 December 2016
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Corowa 2016

Sow date 2 May 2016
Harvest date 10 December 2016
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Dookie 2016

Sow date 20 May 2016
Harvest date 13 December 2016
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Dookie 2016

Sow date 20 May 2016
Harvest date 13 December 2016
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Herbicide

host farmer paddock management

Insecticide

host farmer paddock management

Fungicide

host farmer paddock management

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain and plant growth parameters at Corowa in 2016

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4: @T5: @T6: @T7:
# Treatment 1
Nitrogen offtake in grain (kgN/ha) Head abundance (heads/m2) Screenings (%) Test weight (kg/hL) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Protein (%) Crop height (cm) Grain yield (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) NDVI (.) NDVI (.) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 Nitrogen (0kg/ha) 70 311 1.7 81.6 327 8.6 89 4.67 0.8 45 0.471 0.561 1.6 54.9 3.8 69 0.639 126.7 10.2 0.596 0.264 64.6 12.5
1 Nitrogen (60kg/ha) 101 334 2.3 80.4 463 10 92 5.77 0.479 0.583 1.7 59.9 3.9 88.3 0.738 119.8 10.6 0.7 0.325 97.6 14.2
1 Nitrogen (120kg/ha) 122 312 1.9 80.2 498 11.7 90 5.94 0.476 0.59 1.8 73.3 3.8 103.4 0.747 149.1 10.3 0.75 0.38 92.3 12.6
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Crop height cm


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Dry matter t/ha


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Head abundance heads/m2


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NDVI .


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Nitrogen offtake in grain kgN/ha


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Test weight kg/hL


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Trial results Effect of nitrogen application timing on grain and plant growth parameters at Corowa in 2016

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4: @T5:
# Head abundance (heads/m2) Screenings (%) Test weight (kg/hL) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Nitrogen offtake in grain (kgN/ha) Crop height (cm) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) NDVI (.) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.)
1 Nitrogen GS24 and GS31 322 2 80.8 429 100 90 10 5.63 45 0.8 0.476 0.598 1.7 63 97.4 0.721 3.9 10.4 133.1 0.325
1 Nitrogen GS31 and GS33 309 2 80.6 430 95 90 10.2 5.29 0.475 0.558 76.4 0.695 3.7 10.3 130.5 0.321
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Crop height cm


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Dry matter t/ha


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Head abundance heads/m2


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NDVI .


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Nitrogen offtake in grain kgN/ha


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Test weight kg/hL


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Trial results Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain and plant growth parameters at Dookie in 2016

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4: @T5:
# Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Head abundance (heads/m2) Crop height (cm) Screenings (%) Test weight (kg/hL) Nitrogen offtake in grain (kgN/ha) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) NDVI (.) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha)
1 Nitrogen (0kgN/ha) 334 277 89 0.6 80.5 80 9.7 4.67 0.4 21 0.44 0.54 1.9 57 0.72 4.7 81 0.66 9.1 91 60 11.5
1 Nitrogen (60kgN/ha) 359 320 91 0.6 81 96 10.3 5.32 0.6 32 0.48 0.61 2.1 80 0.74 5.3 115 0.7 9.4 91 54 14.1
1 Nitrogen (120kgN/ha) 381 338 91 0.7 81.2 108 10.4 5.96 0.6 37 0.46 0.63 2.3 92 0.76 5.2 125 0.72 9.9 116 85 15.3
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Crop height cm


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Dry matter t/ha


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Head abundance heads/m2


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NDVI .


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Nitrogen offtake in grain kgN/ha


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Test weight kg/hL


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Trial results Effect of nitrogen application timing on grain and plant growth parameters at Dookie in 2016

@T1: @T2: @T3: @T4: @T5:
# Crop height (cm) Head abundance (heads/m2) Screenings (%) Cereal tillers (tillers/m2) Test weight (kg/hL) Protein (%) Grain yield (t/ha) Nitrogen offtake in grain (kgN/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha) Dry matter (t/ha) Nitrogen uptake (kg N/ha)
1 Nitrogen applied at GS13 and GS30 91 302 0.6 354 80.9 10.2 5.18 93 30 0.5 2.1 79 5 105 9.5 90 13.6 71
1 Nitrogen applied at GS30 and GS33 90 322 0.7 361 80.9 10.1 5.45 97 2 73 5.1 110 9.4 109 13.7 61
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Grain yield t/ha


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Cereal tillers tillers/m2


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Crop height cm


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Dry matter t/ha


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Head abundance heads/m2


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Nitrogen offtake in grain kgN/ha


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Nitrogen uptake kg N/ha


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Protein %


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Screenings %


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Test weight kg/hL


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Site 1, Corowa, NSW Not specified
Site 2, Dookie, VIC Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Site 1, Corowa, NSW Sodosol
Site 2, Dookie, VIC Sodosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Site 1, Corowa NSW Site 2, Dookie VIC
2016 560.9mm195.6mm
2015 526.2mm153.8mm
2014 479.9mm168.0mm
2013 472.7mm169.5mm
2012 535.4mm202.6mm
2011 580.9mm236.0mm
2010 537.8mm251.3mm
2009 422.7mm194.9mm
2008 418.4mm248.4mm
2007 441.5mm238.2mm
2006 483.8mm267.3mm
2005 506.0mm304.7mm
2004 431.2mm298.6mm
2003 360.3mm350.4mm
2002 354.3mm334.5mm
2001 442.1mm388.8mm
2000 434.2mm413.1mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Site 1, Corowa NSW 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 567mm

Site 1, Corowa NSW 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 567mm

Site 2, Dookie VIC 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 509mm

Site 2, Dookie VIC 2016


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 509mm

Derived climate information

Site 1, Corowa VIC

Site 2, Dookie VIC

Site 1, Corowa VIC

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Site 2, Dookie VIC

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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 28-11-2019 11:25am AEST