Deep ripping, deeper deep ripping and water use efficiency

2017
CC BY 4.0

Research organisatons
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Bindi Isbister
Craig Topham
Year(s) 2017
Contributor Agrarian Management
Trial location(s) Arrino, WA
Site 4, Eradu, WA
Site 7, Mullewa, WA
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA
Walkaway, WA
Related trials
Deep ripping, deeper deep ripping and water use efficiency locations
Aims

To provide growers and advisers with a better understanding of the benefits of deep ripping and in particular depth of deep ripping required to optimise crop yield and profit.

Key messages
  • Deep ripping to 500-600mm in coarse textured sandy soils increased yield by 21-66% compared to 6-24% with ripping to 300mm in wheat and canola in 2016 and 2017 in the Geraldton port zone.
  • There was only a small yield response to ripping the red loam in 2016 and no difference in 2017.
  • Soil moisture measurements and visual observations of plant root growth indicated deeper ripping allowed the plant roots to access more water from deeper down the soil profile. This is particularly beneficial in sandy soils that have a low plant available water capacity(PAWC) per 10cm down the profile therefore roots need access deeper into the soil profile to gain the same amount of water as heavier textured soils that have a higher PAWC per 10cm.
  • Economic analysis found the higher cost of deeper ripping gave a positive return on investment up to $5/ha for every dollar invested at 3 sandy sites but not on the red loam where the return on investment was negative with a return of $0.63/Ha for every dollar invested. On the sand at Ogilvie there was a yield penalty in lupins in 2016, resulting in a negative return on investment which could not be recouped in the following dry season of 2017.
  • If ripping below 400mm, consideration must be given to crop selection in year one (lupins are higher risk); leaving an even seed bed post ripping to reduce bogging and plant establishment issues; and managing weeds as due to poor competition and better access to water and nutrients can increase the weed burden as these factors can have a negative impact on yield reducing the return on investment.
Lead research organisation Grains Research and Development Corporation
Host research organisation Agrarian Management
Trial funding source GRDC GER9
Related program Regional Cropping Solutions Network
Acknowledgments

Thank you very much to the host farmers Ben Cripps, Paul Messina, Spring Park Farms, Matt Freeman and Braden Bagley.

Thank you to DAFWA GRDC funded project DAW00243 for providing advice on trial setup, assistance with soil compaction assessments and result interpretation.


Other trial partners Precision Agriculture
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop type Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Soil: Compaction
  • Soil amelioration
Trial type
Trial design

Arrino 2017

Sowing machinery Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Soil amelioration Not specified

Eradu 2017

Sowing machinery Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Soil amelioration Not specified

Mullewa 2017

Sowing machinery Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Soil amelioration Not specified

Ogilvie 2017

Sowing machinery

controlled traffic farming system 3:1 ratio  45ft header, 45ft seeder, 135ft sprayer, 6.8m ripper

Sow date 10 May 2017
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication 3
Soil amelioration

2016

  • Deep Ripped 420mm+ topsoil inclusion plates (control)
  • Shallow Ripped 300mm+ topsoil inclusion plates

Walkaway 2017

Sowing machinery Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Soil amelioration Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Table 1

# Variety
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Grain yield (t/ha)
1 Wheat Yellow sand Ogilvie No rip 2.05
2 Wheat Yellow sand Ogilvie Shallow 2.14
3 Wheat Yellow sand Ogilvie Deep 2.28
4 Wheat Yellow sand Ogilvie Deep + N/A
5 Wheat Yellow loam Arrino No rip 2.08
6 Wheat Yellow loam Arrino Shallow 2.29
7 Wheat Yellow loam Arrino Deep 2.58
8 Wheat Yellow loam Arrino Deep + N/A
9 Lupins Pale sand Walkaway No rip 0.92
10 Lupins Pale sand Walkaway Shallow 1.23
11 Lupins Pale sand Walkaway Deep 1.34
12 Lupins Pale sand Walkaway Deep + 1.38
13 Lupins Yellow sand plain Eradu No rip N/A
14 Lupins Yellow sand plain Eradu Shallow 2.38
15 Lupins Yellow sand plain Eradu Deep 2.55
16 Lupins Yellow sand plain Eradu Deep + 2.3
17 Canola Red Loam Mullewa No rip 0.85
18 Canola Red Loam Mullewa Shallow 0.87
19 Canola Red Loam Mullewa Deep 0.84
20 Canola Red Loam Mullewa Deep + N/A

Grain yield t/ha


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Site Depth Type pH EC P K N A OC CAT
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA 0 - 10cm Sand 6.00 0.05 4.00 9.00
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA 10 - 20cm Sand 5.80 0.05 1.00 8.00
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA 20 - 30cm Sand 5.60 0.04 0.00 7.00
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA 30 - 40cm Loamy sand 5.30 0.02 1.00 3.00
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA 40 - 50cm Sandy loam 5.00 0.02 0.00 2.00
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Arrino, WA Not specified
Site 4, Eradu, WA Not specified
Site 7, Mullewa, WA Not specified
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA Not specified
Walkaway, WA Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Arrino, WA Sodosol
Site 4, Eradu, WA Tenosol
Site 7, Mullewa, WA Tenosol
Site 5, Ogilvie, WA Kandosol
Walkaway, WA Tenosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Arrino WA Site 4, Eradu WA Site 7, Mullewa WA Site 5, Ogilvie WA Walkaway WA
2017 148.2mm171.2mm87.3mm80.5mm87.3mm
2016 139.2mm189.6mm110.7mm72.2mm110.7mm
2015 152.3mm199.8mm115.2mm91.3mm115.2mm
2014 136.9mm183.8mm117.6mm52.7mm117.6mm
2013 158.9mm196.9mm123.4mm62.3mm123.4mm
2012 142.9mm188.0mm109.2mm56.9mm109.2mm
2011 162.3mm234.4mm130.6mm112.4mm130.6mm
2010 144.8mm180.8mm93.2mm44.8mm93.2mm
2009 146.7mm186.6mm96.3mm70.7mm96.3mm
2008 152.8mm218.4mm123.7mm112.9mm123.7mm
2007 124.3mm167.0mm87.5mm70.9mm87.5mm
2006 148.1mm169.2mm78.5mm84.6mm78.5mm
2005 133.9mm187.7mm92.3mm73.5mm92.3mm
2004 126.0mm173.7mm79.8mm76.9mm79.8mm
2003 145.4mm180.0mm94.0mm69.6mm94.0mm
2002 111.1mm161.8mm69.3mm60.2mm69.3mm
2001 127.6mm135.5mm75.0mm48.0mm75.0mm
2000 177.0mm203.5mm122.2mm100.3mm122.2mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Site 5, Ogilvie WA 2017


Observed climate information

Rainfall avg ann (mm) 386mm
Rainfall trial total (mm) 351mm
Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 185mm

Derived climate information

Arrino WA

Site 4, Eradu WA

Site 7, Mullewa WA

Site 5, Ogilvie WA

Walkaway WA

Arrino WA

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Site 4, Eradu WA

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate
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Site 7, Mullewa WA

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Site 5, Ogilvie WA

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Walkaway WA

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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.



Trial last modified: 27-11-2019 14:40pm AEST