Did stubble retention influence in-canopy temperature and frost risk?


Research organisaton
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Nick Poole
Cassandra Schefe
Michael Straight
Year(s) 2017
Contributor Riverine Plains
Trial location(s) Mulwala, NSW
Related trials
Did stubble retention influence in-canopy temperature and frost risk? locations

The aim of this work is to understand the impact of stubble retention on in-canopy temperatures and associated risk of frost in cropping environments with high yields and high stubble loads.

Key messages

The 2017 season was significantly colder than average with about 500 hours below zero.

While stubble management may influence in-canopy temperatures, the differences between management practices were minimal during 2017.

Differences in frost damage of grains were significant between treatments at both the Coreen and Yarrawonga sites, with the burnt treatment showing the greatest frost damage at Coreen, while the no-till stubble retained (NTSR) treatments showed the greatest damage at Yarrawonga.

Stubble management per se did not influence frost damage in wheat during 2017, with frost damage not necessarily related to in-canopy temperatures.

Stubble management practices can influence the rate of crop development and may lead to changes in flowering time. This change in rate of development can influence crop susceptibility to frost at different times throughout the growing season.


Lead research organisation Riverine Plains
Host research organisation Riverine Plains
Trial funding source GRDC RPI00009
Related program National Frost Initiative

This work was carried out as part of the GRDC project investment Maintaining profitable farming systems with retained stubble in the Riverine Plains region (2013–18).
Many thanks to the GRDC National Frost Initiative team for advice on frost temperature monitoring and frost damage assessment.
Thanks to the farmer co-operators at each of these sites:
• Corowa/Coreen NSW: Tomlinson Ag
• Yarrawonga: Telewonga Pty Ltd
• Dookie: Ludeman Brothers

Other trial partners FAR Australia
Download the trial report to view additional trial information


Crop type Cereal (Grain): Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Adverse Effects Management: Frost
  • Stubble: Management
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Randomised,Replicated,Blocked

Mulwala 2017

Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Table 1

# Treatment 1
Frost incidence (%)
1 Stubble retained Coreen 3.366
2 Stubble incorporated Coreen 5.415
3 Stubble burnt Coreen 7.882

Frost incidence %


Trial results Table 2

# Treatment 1
Frost incidence (%)
1 Stubble burnt Yarrawonga 11.1
2 Stubble incorporated Yarrawonga 12.5
3 NTSR -short stubble Yarrawonga 17.2
4 NTSR - long stubble Yarrawonga 15.4

Frost incidence %

Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Mulwala, NSW Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Mulwala, NSW Sodosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Mulwala NSW
2017 558.6mm
2016 589.9mm
2015 579.4mm
2014 572.4mm
2013 557.9mm
2012 572.7mm
2011 582.2mm
2010 597.8mm
2009 533.7mm
2008 520.2mm
2007 495.4mm
2006 524.7mm
2005 560.3mm
2004 530.5mm
2003 499.8mm
2002 455.1mm
2001 496.4mm
2000 463.8mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties



Derived climate information

No observed climate data available for this trial.
Derived climate data is determined from trial site location and national weather sources.

Mulwala NSW

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate

Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.

Trial report and links

2017 trial report

Trial last modified: 19-12-2018 13:36pm AEST