Agronomic drivers of yield in rain-fed wheat production systems – Liverpool Plains

2014 - 2015

Research organisaton
Funding sources

Trial details

Researcher(s) Rick Graham (NSW DPI)
Guy McMullen (NSW DPI)
Steven Simpfendorfer (NSW DPI)
Year(s) 2014 - 2015
Contributor Department of Primary Industries NSW
Trial location(s) Mullaley, ACT
Nowley, NSW
Tamarang, NSW
Further information View external link
Related trials
Agronomic drivers of yield in rain-fed wheat production systems – Liverpool Plains locations
Aims

The aim of this research was to benchmark yield potential across a range of growing environments in the NGR over two consecutive seasons, and to quantify the effect genotype (G), management (M) and environment (E) had on yield.

Key messages
  • Sowing wheat varieties in the early part of their optimum sowing window was found to be a key determinant of yield. Delays in sowing date (SD) averaged across sites resulted in yield losses of 13% for EGA GregoryA and ranged from 8% to 28%.
  • Commercially available mid–late maturing spring wheat varieties (e.g. EGA GregoryA) were observed to be broadly adapted and plastic in their yield responses, performing consistently across sowing windows.
  • Altering variety and/or maturity type, and increasing target plant populations in response to delays in SD could not fully compensate for the yield losses associated with delayed sowings.
  • Yield responses to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser application rates, were variable and influenced by the starting soil nutrition and seasonal conditions.
  • Crown rot (CR) was shown to be a significant factor influencing yield potential in inoculated vs. uninoculated experiments – the delayed SD decreased yields by 12%. Results highlight the compounding negative impact of delayed sowing and CR infection on yield potential and underline the need for awareness of risk levels from soil-borne pathogens before sowing in order to guide management decisions.
Lead research organisation Department of Primary Industries NSW
Host research organisation N/A
Trial funding source GRDC DAN 00181
Trial funding source DPI NSW
Related program Northern region high yielding cereal agronomy - NSW
Acknowledgments

This research was part of the project Northern region high yielding cereal agronomy – NSW (DAN 00181), with joint investment by NSW DPI and GRDC. Technical assistance provided by Stephen Morphett, Jim Perfrement, Bruce Haigh, Peter Formann, Michael Dal Santo, Rod Bambach, and Jan Hosking (all NSW DPI) for the sowing, maintaining and harvesting the experiments is greatly appreciated.

The research undertaken as part of this project was made possible by the significant contributions of growers through both trial site cooperation and support of the GRDC, we would like to thank them for their continued support and in particularly David Ronald, James Vince and Richard Heath.


Other trial partners Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional trial information

Method

Crop type Cereal (Grain): Wheat
Treatment type(s)
  • Crop: Variety
  • Fertiliser: Rate
  • Fertiliser: Timing
  • Fertiliser: Type
  • Management systems
  • Sowing: Rate
  • Sowing: Timing
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Replicated

Mullaley 2014

Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Mullaley 2015

Sow rate or Target density 60, 120 or 180 plants/m2
Sow rate or Target density 60, 120 or 180 plants/m2
Sow date 20 May 2015 SD1: 20 May 2015; SD1: 8 July 2015
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser

0, 50, 100, 150 or a 50 + 50 kg N/ha split application all applied as urea (46% N). Treatments were side banded at sowing, apart from the split application, which was applied at sowing and broadcast at stem elongation (GS31). 

Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Nowley 2014

Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Nowley 2015

Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Tamarang 2014

Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Tamarang 2015

Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow rate or Target density Not specified
Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Psuedoreplication Not specified
Fertiliser Not specified
Other trial notes

This research paper is an extract from the publication Northern NSW Research Results 2017, available at
https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/802900/NNSWRR2017-web-access-fixedMar2018.pdf

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information

Download results

Trial results Mean site yield (t/ha) and corresponding yield range (t/ha) for two sowing dates averages across varieties

@T1: Sowing date 1 (20-05-2015) @T2: Sowing date 2 (08-07-2015)
# Yield range (.) Mean site yield (t/ha) Mean site yield (t/ha) Yield range (.)
1 4.38 - 4.21 4.34 3.56 4.00 - 3.06
1

Mean site yield t/ha


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Trial results Effect of management and crown rot (Fp) on grain yield potential - LPP across site analysis

# Variety
Treatment 1
Target plant population (plants/m2) Fusarium pseudograminearum (CR+++) (.) Grain yield (t/ha) Applied nitrogen (kg N/ha) Applied phosphorous (kg P/ha) Yield gap (t/ha)
1 EGA Gregory Sowing date 1: early/main season 120 0 4.57* 100 20 -
2 EGA Gregory Sowing date 1: early/main season 120 +++ 4.26 100 20 -0.31*
3 EGA Gregory Sowing date 2: delayed 120 0 3.97* 100 20 -0.60*
4 LRPB Crusader Sowing date 2: delayed 120 0 3.65 100 20 -0.32*
5 LRPB Spitfire Sowing date 2: delayed 120 0 3.55 100 20 -0.42*
6 LRPB Spitfire Sowing date 2: delayed 120 +++ 3.13 100 20 -0.84*

Grain yield t/ha


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Applied nitrogen kg N/ha


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Applied phosphorous kg P/ha


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Target plant population plants/m2


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Yield gap t/ha


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Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Site Depth Type pH EC P K N A OC CAT
Mullaley, ACT 0 - 10cm Grey vertosol 46.00
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Mullaley, ACT Not specified
Nowley, NSW Not specified
Tamarang, NSW Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Mullaley, ACT Vertosol
Nowley, NSW Vertosol
Tamarang, NSW Vertosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Mullaley ACT Nowley NSW Tamarang NSW
2015 521.4mm186.0mm308.1mm
2014 514.0mm174.1mm258.1mm
2013 495.6mm186.7mm298.5mm
2012 532.6mm249.9mm313.1mm
2011 518.9mm178.2mm324.7mm
2010 554.8mm271.2mm375.5mm
2009 505.6mm140.3mm328.9mm
2008 495.7mm121.6mm354.0mm
2007 453.3mm84.7mm323.5mm
2006 460.7mm147.4mm294.5mm
2005 525.9mm219.3mm364.5mm
2004 458.7mm275.9mm383.8mm
2003 439.3mm240.8mm349.4mm
2002 496.0mm263.1mm266.4mm
2001 510.7mm313.4mm327.0mm
2000 422.1mm461.7mm298.4mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties

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Climate

Mullaley ACT 2015


Observed climate information

Rainfall trial gsr (mm) 185mm

Derived climate information

Mullaley NSW

Nowley NSW

Tamarang NSW

Mullaley NSW

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate
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Nowley NSW

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate
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Tamarang NSW

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate
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Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.

Trial report and links

2015 trial report



Trial last modified: 05-06-2023 11:59am AEST