Effect of combinations of sowing time, seed rate and herbicides on brome grass management in barley

CC BY 4.0

Research organisatons
Funding source

Trial details

Researcher(s) Claire Browne
Ben Fleet
Gurjeet Gill
Kate Maddern
Contact email gurjeet.gill@adelaide.edu.au
Contact phone 08 83137744
Year(s) 2019
Contributor School of Agriculture, Food and Wine - The University of Adelaide
Trial location(s) Birchip, VIC, VIC
Effect of combinations of sowing time, seed rate and herbicides on brome grass management in barley locations

The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of sowing time, barley density and herbicides on brome grass control.

Key messages

A field trial was undertaken at Kinnabulla (VIC) in 2019 to investigate combinations of sowing time, seed rate and herbicide treatments to control brome grass in barley. Spartacus CL barley was used in this trial to enable the use of Intervix® for post-emergence control of brome grass. In 2019, the trial site received 181 mm rainfall during the growing season (April-October), which was 23% lower than the long-term average for the site. However in December 2018, the site received a heavy downpour of 199 mm, which created good growing conditions for barley crop grown in 2019. In this trial, barley seeding rate did not have a significant effect on either yield (P=0.213), brome panicles/m2 at maturity (P=0.889) or brome seed set/m2 (P=0.409). This lack of effect of crop seed rate on the number of brome panicles and seed set could be related to the high plant available water during the crop and weed life-cycle or due to Spartacus being a less competitive barley cultivar due to its erect architecture. Time of sowing had a significant effect on brome panicles/m2 at maturity and brome seed set/m2. TOS 2 had a lower brome panicle density at maturity than TOS 1 across all herbicide strategies, which was most likely due to low pre-sowing weed kill in TOS 1 as brome grass had not yet germinated. However, brome population that had germinated after the opening rains was killed by glyphosate application prior to seeding barley in TOS 2. As the numbers of panicles were lower in TOS 2, brome seed set was also reduced in TOS2 relative to TOS 1. Herbicide strategy had a significant effect on barley grain yield. As the herbicides reduced the impact of brome on barley, its yield increased from 3.24 t/ha in the knockdown treatment (NIL), to 3.72 t/ha in the pre-emergent herbicides only and to 3.96 t/ha when the pre-emergent herbicides were followed by post-emergent Intervix. Somewhat surprisingly, TOS 2 produced higher yields than TOS 1 across all the treatments, with the greatest difference being 0.46 t/ha in the Nil herbicide treatments. However, the yield difference between the two times of sowing decreased when more effective herbicides were used (0.08t/ha difference between TOS 1 and 2 in pre-emergent only and 0.04t/ha difference when pre-emergent herbicides followed by Intervix). Higher barley grain yield in the later sown crop is most likely due to a significantly greater weed density in barley in TOS 1 than in TOS 2, as large numbers of early germinating brome plants were controlled with glyphosate knockdown in TOS 2. TOS 1 also experienced a mild frost during flowering, resulting in patchy frost damage. Furthermore, May 23 (TOS 2) sowing date still falls within the optimum sowing window for Spartacus, which is an early maturity variety, and TOS 1 on April 29 was earlier than optimum for this variety.

Lead research organisation School of Agriculture, Food and Wine - The University of Adelaide
Host research organisation Birchip Cropping Group
Trial funding source GRDC 9175134
Related program N/A

GRDC for providing funds for this research project.

Other trial partners Not specified
Download the trial report to view additional trial information


Crop types Cereal (Grain): Barley Weed: Brome grass
Treatment type(s)
  • Herbicide: Type
  • Sowing: Rate
  • Sowing: Timing
Trial type Experimental
Trial design Randomised,Replicated,Blocked

Birchip, VIC 2019 Barley

Sow date 29 April and 23 May
Harvest date Not applicable
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Other trial notes

Refer to the attached trial report (PDF) for further details.

Birchip, VIC 2019 Brome grass

Sow date Not specified
Harvest date Not specified
Plot size Not specified
Plot replication Not specified
Other trial notes

Refer to the attached trial report (PDF) for further details.

Download the trial report to view additional method/treatment information
Trial source data and summary not available
Check the trial report PDF for trial results.
Observed trial site soil information
Trial site soil testing
Not specified
Soil conditions
Trial site Soil texture
Birchip, VIC, VIC Not specified
Derived trial site soil information
Australian Soil Classification Source: ASRIS
Trial site Soil order
Birchip, VIC, VIC Calcarosol
Soil Moisture Source: BOM/ANU
Average amount of water stored in the soil profile during the year, estimated by the OzWALD model-data fusion system.
Year Birchip, VIC VIC
2019 673.5mm
2018 619.0mm
2017 675.3mm
2016 660.8mm
2015 626.4mm
2014 643.5mm
2013 650.4mm
2012 672.1mm
2011 697.5mm
2010 694.5mm
2009 655.9mm
2008 625.0mm
2007 645.8mm
2006 659.2mm
2005 688.1mm
2004 635.8mm
2003 649.6mm
2002 596.3mm
2001 649.8mm
2000 606.9mm
National soil grid Source: CSIRO/TERN
NOTE: National Soil Grid data is aggregated information for background information on the wider area
Actual soil values can vary significantly in a small area and the trial soil tests are the most relevant data where available

Soil properties



Derived climate information

No observed climate data available for this trial.
Derived climate data is determined from trial site location and national weather sources.

Birchip, VIC VIC

NOTE: Exact trial site locality unknown - Climate data may not be accurate

Some data on this site is sourced from the Bureau of Meteorology

SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.

Trial report and links

2019 trial report

Trial last modified: 20-03-2023 16:16pm AEST