|Agricultural Innovation & Research Eyre Peninsula
Site D, Cootra, SA, SA
|View external link
Improving the reliability of early
establishment plays an role in increasing water and yield potential cropping environ
Establishing plants earlier extends the growing
a crop, and when with optimal phenology, more time for a plant to
develop resources that ultimately contribute to grain fill and yield.
Seeding deeper, into soil moisture present below the 'normal seeding bed' may help to establish
plants earlier without relying onan autumn break for germination. Currently, wheat growers are
restricted to a seeding depth of 3-5 cm because modern wheat varieties have a shortened coleoptile
associated with dwarfing genes that were introduced in the 1960's to increase yields. The
length of a coleoptile restricts seeding depth because it is a hollow shoot that protects the first
leaves as they grow towards the soil surface during germination. Breeders have now identified
an alternate dwarfing gene 'Rht18' that allows a coleoptile up to 12 cm long, whilst maintaining
the reduced height associated with modern high yielding wheat varieties.
The trials reported here assessed the performance of long coleoptile wheats in an Eyre Peninsula
• Longer coleoptile wheat varieties provide opportunities and flexibility to successfully
establish crops in situations where previously not possible.
• The coleoptile provides protection to the emerging shoot. Longer coleoptiles allow wheat to
successfully emerge from deeper sowing.
• 2021 trials conducted on sandy soils at Cootra found that both a Mace and a version of Mace with
a long coleoptile gene emerged equally well from a sowing depth of 10 cm.
• The long coleoptile genetics did not show any yield penalty when sown at 10 cm.
• Four newly released commercial varieties with longer coleoptiles were all able to
establish well from a depth of 10 cm.
|Lead research organisation
EPAG Research Trust
|Host research organisation
Agricultural Innovation & Research Eyre Peninsula
|Trial funding source
|South Australian Grains Industry Trust (SAGIT) EP120
Rhaquelle was funded by SAGIT/AIR EP as part of the Eyre Peninsula internship in applied grains research project, project code EP120. CSIRO for providing the long coleoptile germplasm. AGT, LongReach and lnterGrain for proving seed of the newly released varieties. This work was also made possible through the
|Other trial partners
|CSIRO Agriculture and Food
|Cereal (Grain): Wheat
|Sow rate or Target density
|7 May 2021 7 May 2021
|1 December 2021 1 December 2021
|Randomised complete block
45gm/ha Copper @ late tillering
Weed control was achieved through the application of 118 g/ha of Sakura®, and 1.6 L/ha of Avadex Xtra® applied prior to seeding and 25 g/ha of Paradigm®, 300 ml/ha of LVE MCPA, 500 ml/1 00L of Uptake®, applied post-emergent
70 ml/ha of Alpha Scud®,
300 ml/ha of Prosaro®, 600 ml/ha of Aviator®
|Rainfall avg ann (mm)
|Rainfall avg gsr (mm)
|Rainfall trial total (mm)
|Rainfall trial gsr (mm)
SILO weather estimates sourced from https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/
Jeffrey, S.J., Carter, J.O., Moodie, K.B. and Beswick, A.R. (2001). Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data , Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol 16/4, pp 309-330. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00008-1.